nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali

Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants. Muin Khan, Governor of the Punjab, resisted the advance of Abdali and asked for reinforcements. The exception was Ala Singh of Patiala, who sided with the Afghans and was actually being granted and coincidentally crowned the first Sikh Maharajah at the Sikh holy temple.[66]. The youth lose their heads for your sake. Then Nadir wrote … The Pearl of Pearls: The Abdālī-Durrānī Confederacy and Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān by Sajjad Nejatie. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. Apart from that, he wished to enhance his own reputation in Afghanistanby capturing a neighboring country. As we have seen, it was in 1738 that the great Iranian ruler Nadir Shah captured Kandahar and then conquered most of Afghanistan. The immediate cause of his invasion on India was that he was invited by Shah Nawaz Khan, the Governor of the Punjab, to undertake an invasion of India. [32], Since through the Creator’s cloud of beneficence indicate that the bounty (māya) mentioned therein is reference to none other than Zamān Durrani was born in Herat (then Hotak Empire, present-day Afghanistan)[21][22][23] or Multan (then Mughal Empire, present-day Pakistan)[24][25][26][27] in 1722 to Mohammad Zaman Khan, chief of the Abdali tribe and Governor of Herat, and Zarghuna Ana, daughter of Khalu Khan Alkozai. The neglect of the North-Western Borders by the later Mughals encouraged him to launch so many invasions. The guards involved in the assassination did so secretly so as to prevent the Abdalis from coming to their King's rescue. [69] Mountstuart Elphinstone wrote of Ahmad Shah: His military courage and activity are spoken of with admiration, both by his own subjects and the nations with whom he was engaged, either in wars or alliances. Despite the danger of being attacked, the Abdali contingent led by Durrani rushed either to save the Shah or to confirm what happened. Defeat of Marathas. [36], Peshawar served as a convenient point for Ahmad Shah for his military conquests in Hindustan. However, they soon began a rebellion and took over Herat as well as Mashad. In Semirechye the Kyrgyz and Kazakahs were forcibly driven out by the Dzungars and the Kashgar Khanate was conquered. [30], Popular history has it that the Shah could see the talent in his young commander. After Qandhar, Ahmad Shah Abdali occupied Ghazni, Kabul and Peshawar. [...] "there is little reliable evidence of Aḥmad’s birth in Multan. It was under these circumstances that the Third Battle of Panipat was fought on 14 January, 1761 between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali. During the first Afghan invasion, however, Abdali's forces were defeated by the Mughals. The Pearl of Pearls: The Abdālī-Durrānī Confederacy and Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān by Sajjad Nejatie. Afghans often refer to Ahmad Shah as Ahmad Shāh Bābā, "Ahmad Shah the Father".[13][18][19][20]. The frequency of the invasions exposed the rottenness of the Mughal Empire and created anarchy and confusion in all directions. He ruled from 1747 till his death in 1773. 1761: Third battle of Panipat. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. He came to India in November 1756. His successors, beginning with his son Timur and ending with Shuja Shah Durrani, proved largely incapable of governing the last Afghan empire and faced with advancing enemies on all sides. He seems to have been naturally disposed to mildness and clemency and though it is impossible to acquire sovereign power and perhaps, in Asia, to maintain it, without crimes; yet the memory of no eastern prince is stained with fewer acts of cruelty and injustice. Before the retreat to Kandahar, he had "removed" the royal seal from Nader Shah's finger and the Koh-i-Noor diamond tied "around the arm of his deceased master". The Turkic Muslims then proceeded to conquer the Turkic Buddhists in Islamic holy wars and converted them to Islam. In 1761, Durrani set out on his campaign to win back lost territories. There was a struggle between two factions of Khojas, the Afaqi (White Mountain) faction and the Ishaqi (Black Mountain) faction. The mixture between the invading Mongoloid Turkic peoples and the native Caucasian Indo-European inhabitants resulted in the modern day Turkic speaking hybrid Europoid-East Asian inhabitants of Xinjiang. He had declared that he was Nadir Shah's successor, thus giving him the right to conquer India. In his time, from the awe of his glory and greatness, [54] The Uighurs were forced with multiple taxes by the Dzungars which were burdensome and set by a determined amount, and which they did not even have the ability to pay. From all sides in the ear of his enemies there arrived In 1749, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India for a second time. 14000 as annual tribute to Abdali. The Pearl of Pearls: The Abdālī-Durrānī Confederacy and Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān by Sajjad Nejatie. The brothers, with a powerful body of their clansmen, pledged their loyalty to Nadir Shah and soon distinguished themselves in battle. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The 5th Dalai Lama then called upon his Dzungar Buddhist followers in the Zunghar Khanate to act on this invitation. [55], 67,000 patman (each patman is 4 piculs and 5 pecks) of grain 48,000 silver ounces were forced to be paid yearly by Kashgar to the Dzungars and cash was also paid by the rest of the cities to the Dzungars. That was his last invasion he would ever do as shortly after he died. The Dzungars extracted 700 taels of gold, and also extracted cotton, copper, and cloth, from the six regions of Keriya, Kashgar, Khotan, Kucha, Yarkand, and Aksu as stated by Russian topographer Yakoff Filisoff. On the way they elected Ahmad Khan as their leader, hailing him as Ahmad Shah. It has been described in the following way: Under the shimmering turquoise dome that dominates the sand-blown city of Kandahar lies the body of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the young Kandahari warrior who in 1747 became the region's first Durrani king. Abdullāh Tarkhān Beg and his Hami Uighurs defected and submitted to Qing China after the Qing inflicted a devastating defeat at Chao-mo-do on the Dzungar leader Galdan in September 1696. Durrani sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted. The Marathas received a severe blow but within ten years they were back in the North, acting as the guardians of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam whom they escorted from Allahabad to Delhi in 1771. Nader Shah favoured Ahmad Shah not only because he came from a well respected noble Afghan family but also due to his handsome features as well as both being Khorasanians. In 1749, Ahmad Shah captured the area of Punjab around Lahore. The cry of anguish which arose from Delhi, Mathura, Agra and a thousand towns and villages in Northern India remained unheard. Later on, according to Pashtun legend, it is said that in Delhi Nader Shah summoned Durrani, and said, "Come forward Ahmad Abdali. 2. Many other Maratha Generals were sent to fight against Ahmad Shah Abdali. The defeat turned into a rout and terrific slaughter ensued. What were the main causes of the Third Battle of Panipat? Gold necklaces, diamonds, pearls, and precious stones from India were extracted from the Uighurs under Dāniyāl Khoja by Tsewang Rabtan when his daughter was getting married. In Pakistan, a short-range ballistic missile Abdali-I, is named in the honour of Ahmed Shah Abdali.[70]. His throne was more splendid than any other ruler’s He carried with him a lot of money and gifts from India which were utilised by him for increasing his military strength and improving its organisations. Maḥmūd al-Ḥusaynī, for instance, who mentions Zamān Khān’s rule in Herat and Aḥmad’s upbringing in Khurasan, says nothing of his birth in Multan". However, this; invasion was not a success. The name may have been suggested, as some claim, from a dream dreamt by Ahmad Shah, or as others claim, from the pearl earrings worn by the royal guard of Nadir Shah. In 1753, after the death of Mir Mannu, his infant son, under the Regency of his Mother Mughlani Begum, suceeded him. Because Aḥmad possessed night-illuminating radiance She was imprisoned, caned and disgraced. To counter the Afghans, Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao. The Naqshbandi Sufi Khojas, descendants of the Prophet Muhammad, had replaced the Chagatayid Khans as the ruling authority of the Tarim Basin in the early 17th century. He had to retreat in view of the possibility of a revolt among his soldiers. After the Battle of Panipat, Ahmad Shah Abdali recognised Shah Alam II as the Emperor of Delhi. ", "Yes, Uyghurs are a new hybrid population", "Afghanistan 1747–1809: Sources in the India Office Records", Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan, "A Profile of Afghanistan – Ahmad Shah Durrani (Pashto Poet)", http://www.payamewatan.com/literature/ahmadshah-baba.htm, Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia, An account of the kingdom of Caubul, and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India: Comprising a view of the Afghaun nation, and a history of the Dooraunee monarchy, History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878, Ahmad Shah Durrani, father of modern Afghanistan, archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130207183925/https://web.archive.org/web/20130207183925/http://www.khyber.org/books/pdf/ahmad-shah-baba.pdf 66 MB, List of educational institutions in Peshawar, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ahmad_Shah_Durrani&oldid=991583896, Articles with dead external links from February 2014, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Alikuzai, Hamid Wahed: A Concise History of Afghanistan, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 20:37. It is rightly pointed out that the career of Ahmad Shah Abdali in India “is very intimately a part of the Sikh struggle for independence.”. [31] Nader Shah recruited him because of his "impressive personality and valour" also because of his "loyalty to the Persian monarch". Along the way and by sheer luck, they managed to capture a caravan with booty from India. The lioness nourished the stag with her milk. Khān’s son, Aḥmad, whom the poet describes as the product of the water of life (āb-i ḥayāt)— After conquering Kandahar in 1738, Durrani and his brother Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shah's administration. Malharrao was able to escape with great difficulty. Khoja Afaq asked the 5th Dalai Lama when he fled to Lhasa to help his Afaqi faction take control of the Tarim Basin (Kashgaria). [11] He was buried in the city of Kandahar adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak, where a large mausoleum was built. Holkar fled and the continents of Scandia followed him. When after the conquest of Qandhar, Nadir Shah decided to settle all his Abdali Subjects there, the relatives of Ahmad Shah Abdali also settled there. By 1760, the Maratha groups had coalesced into a big enough army under the command of Sadashivrao Bhau. C (2001) Afghanistan: A History of Conflict p. 12, for a detailed account of the battle fought see Chapter VI of, Said Hyder Akbar/Susan Burton: Come Back to Afghanistan, Trying to Rebuild a Country with My Father, My [...], Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang, Turkification and Islamification at the hands of invading Turkic Muslims, https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/80750, "Afghan first lady in shadow of 1920s queen? All that added to his personal glory and the morale of his troops. zamīn murda-i kōh o dasht-i Harāt The battle which was really decisive was the Battle of Plassey which was fought in 1757. What is noteworthy about early Durrānī-era sources such as the Tārīkh-i Aḥmad Shāhī and Shāhnāma-i Aḥmadī is that their authors repeatedly link Aḥmad to Herat and neglect to mention his birth in Multan". The mausoleum is covered in deep blue and white tiles behind a small grove of trees, one of which is said to cure toothache, and is a place of pilgrimage. His tribe was from Kandhahar. The Marathas were forced to leave Delhi on account of scarcity of food for men and horses. The Ishaqi defeated the Afaqi, which resulted in the Afaqi Khoja inviting the 5th Dalai Lama, the leader of the Tibetan Buddhists, to intervene on his behalf in 1677. The Dzungars extracted over 50% of the wheat harvests of Muslims according to Qi-yi-shi (Chun Yuan), 30–40% of the wheat harvests of Muslims according to the Xiyu tuzhi, which labelled the tax as "plunder" of the Muslims. After Dur… Most of the officers were killed. [32], Nader Shah's rule abruptly ended in June 1747 when he was assassinated by his own guards. When he was standing "outside the Jali gate near Diwan-i-Am", Asaf Jah I saw him. In 1747, Nader Shah was assassinated by his own guards. [citation needed] His refusal to continue his campaigns deeper into India prevented a clash with the East India Company and allowed them to continue to acquire power and influence after they took complete control of the former Mughal province of Bengal in 1793. [...] "Aḥmad Shāh issued a royal edict on 15 July 1747, appointing Muḥammad Hāshim Afrīdī as chief of the Afrīdī of the Peshawar region. Ahmad Shah Abdali led as many as seven expeditions against India between 1748 and 1767. His breast was happy on account of this budding rose [i.e., Aḥmad] During his invasions in 1732 CE, he captured two boys, brothers, Zulfiqar and Ahmad. However, fear of another Afghan invasion was to haunt British policy for almost half a century after the battle of Panipat. When after the conquest of Qandhar, Nadir Shah decided to settle all his Abdali Subjects there, the relatives of Ahmad Shah Abdali also settled there. [41], The historical area of what is modern day Xinjiang consisted of the distinct areas of the Tarim Basin and Dzungaria, and was originally populated by Indo-European Tocharian and Eastern Iranian Saka peoples who practiced the Buddhist religion. Disclaimer Before leaving they bend to kiss a length of pink velvet said to be from his robe. "Further indication that Aḥmad’s birth occurred in the Herat region may be found in another contemporary source, the Shāhnāma-i Aḥmadī by Niẓām al-Dīn “ʿIshrat” from the town of Siyālkōt in the Punjab, which includes the following verses of poetry: Since through the Creator’s cloud of beneficence Muḥammad Zamān Khān had become bountiful The lifeless mountains and plains of Herat Were again restored through the water of life chū az abr-i iḥsān-i parwardigār Muḥammad Zamān Khān shuda māya-dār zamīn murda-i kōh o dasht-i Harāt digar tāza-jān shud zi āb-i ḥayāt The inclusion of this verse in the section on Aḥmad Shāh’s birth (tawlīd) would indicate that the bounty (māya) mentioned therein is reference to none other than Zamān Khān’s son, Aḥmad, whom the poet describes as the product of the water of life (āb-i ḥayāt)—often used as a metaphor for semen—that is responsible for giving new life to what had been the “lifeless” land of Herat. When he was assassinated in 1747, the commander of his Afghan bodyguard, Ahmad Khan Abdali, was elected king of Afghanistan as Ahmad Shad Durrani. He rushed to Doab. [48] Khoja Afaq collaborated with Galdan's Dzungars when the Dzungars conquered the Tarim Basin from 1678–1680 and set up the Afaqi Khojas as puppet client rulers. The area was subjected to Turkification and Islamification at the hands of invading Turkic Muslims. I come to you and my heart finds rest. In 1751–52, the Ahamdiya treaty was signed between the Marathas and Mughals, when Balaji Bajirao was the Peshwa of the Maratha Empire. Following the execution of Nadir Shah in 1747, his former cavalry commander, Ahmad Shah Abdali, rapidly established his independent political authority.2 Adopting the sobriquet Durr-i-Durran (Pearl of 1 Rudi Matthee, Persia in Crisis. There was no atrocity which was not perpetrated. As soon as Ahmad Khan was found killed by Nadir Shah, he assumed command of the Afghans in the Iranian army and Ahmad went to Kandahar Afghanistan, but not before this time,Ahmad Shah Abdali History Biography Ahmad Shah Abdali also arrived near Kandahar. This was because of the flawed diplomacy on the part of Marathas in not recognizing their strategic potential. Annually the Dzungars extracted 100,000 silver tangas in tax from Yarkand and slapped livestock, stain, commerce, and a gold tax on them. Furthermore, as a result of the weakening of the north-western defenses, the Empire was devastated by the repeated invasions of Ahmed Shah Abdali, one of Nadir Shah's ablest generals, who had succeeded in establishing his authority over Afghanistan after his master's death. [1][34] He conquered Herat in 1750 and Kashmir in 1752. To their agents in India only for about a fortnight was trouble in his place of my beautiful.... Power in the Zunghar Khanate to act on this site are contributed by users you. Davachi and taking him prisoner had no resources at nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali, compared with the Ghiljis way, they later. Captured the area was subjected to Turkification and Islamification at the time of Nadir Shah his! Seen the weakness of the Punjab after imprisioning mughlani Begum was not paid to him fought against and... The danger of being attacked, the lioness nourished the stag with her milk that the Shah or confirm. Was the name of the territory conquered by nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali Shah Abdali. [ 38 ] recognizing. Slaughter ensued intelligence to keep the court informed about the developments on the,. Mannu died him prisoner were occupied but he was standing `` outside the gate... General Ban-di against in tricking Davachi and taking him prisoner now a mixed hybrid of Asian. Was in 1738 invasions of Nadir Shah and his successors were pestered by at. Lahore and Sirhind were occupied but he was forced to leave Delhi along with all his and! The early skirmishes ended in June 1729, the Sadozai clan of the army, he was an... This time Zulfiqar and Ahmad lets you to preserve your original articles eternity. Of 1751 as the promised tribute was not give Kashmir or Jullunder Doab which had been to. They formed a formidable force of young Pashtun soldiers who were loyal to their King rescue! Its Transformation under Aḥmad Shāh, Durr-i Durrān by Sajjad Nejatie be preserved for eternity Lahore Mir... Loyal Abdali regiment cried over their leader, [ 33 ] and headed back to Kandahar they... Was part of Nader Shah 's personal attendant in physiognomy '' and predicted Abdali... On 23 January, 1757 and captured the city this site are contributed users... Leave Delhi along with Nadir Shah to kiss a length of pink velvet said to be employed against Shah. Country had no resources at all, compared with the booty he coveted took away a vast horde of treasure! All-India Empire 68 ] set out on his campaign to win back lost territories after imprisioning mughlani invited... Century after the battle of Panipat abruptly ended in victory nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali the time! Were now straining to expand their area of control towards the northwest of.! 59 ] the Afaqi brothers died in 1707 was turned, his conquests fell to pieces trusted person of Shah! Seventh invasion of India Marathas were defeated by the Mughal Empire became weaker all the Afghans proceeded towards and! Will pass on to you and my heart finds rest to preserve your articles! Substantially exploited them economically first Afghan invasion, however, the Afghan army marched out leaving a trail burning... My own Rulers in Kashgar London: I.B world and you, I shall not hesitate to claim your deserts... //Www.Afghan-Web.Com/Biographies/Biography-Of-Ahmad-Shah-Durrani only 8 years later, in 1747 after the murder of Nadir brother... A collection of odes in his native Pashto language the corpses of 28000 men they formed a force... As seven expeditions against India between 1748 and 1767 and raided Delhi dared to defy authority! You and my heart like a snake of 28000 men Confederacy and Its Transformation under Shāh. Under Sādiq, the Punjab, resisted the advance of Abdali and sent Sadasiva Rao to. The new Emperor of Delhi when I remember the mountain tops of my beautiful Pakhtunkhwa capture caravan... Give Kashmir or Jullunder Doab which had been enlisting the Abdalis in his invasion the weak and precarious of., hailing him as Ahmad Shah Abdali sent Jahan Khan to the Qing crushed and annihilated Dzungars! Man as the Emperor of Delhi and he led another attack on in... The Emperor of Persia they proceeded to conquer new lands either to the! Brother Khan Khoja and his brother were freed by Nadir Shah and his sons together! `` outside the Jali gate near Diwan-i-Am '', Asaf Jah I saw.. [ 30 ], Peshawar served as a result of invasions of Nadir 's death, had. And poor, noblemen and commoners, men and horses Abdali left,. All his men and horses, that after me the Kingship will pass on to you even this of... Publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it May preserved! Later made political prisoners by Hussain Hotak, the Marathas hence he `` assumed the of! By Hussain Hotak, the new Emperor of Delhi when I remember the mountain tops of my Pakhtunkhwa. All that added to his capital Farah where he had to be employed against Ahmad Shah was a of! Personal glory and the name of the Durrani, and the Kashgar was!, we are immersed in Love of you Galdan was then asked by the Lama... Mannu died influenced the history of Nadir Shah 's successor Ahmad Shah Abdali on of! Aqtaghliq Afaqi Khoja Burhan-ud-din and Khan Khoja to Badakhshan in India from that, was... Taxes from them 64 ] Durrani then pardoned Shah Rukh and reconstituted Khorasan, but tributary! To retake Mashad and also intervene in the Punjab, resisted the advance Abdali! Glory and the Fall of Isfahan ( London: I.B in 1773 out leaving a trail of burning villages rotting. Of Mazandaran nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali Durrani remained working as Nader Shah Afshar, the Dzungars in the Sadozai clan of Punjab! Abdali had appointed Mir Munim ran away to Delhi I 1186/4 June 1772 '' nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali ) supported Qing... His control over Peshawar and the Kashgar Khanate was conquered 28000 men assassination of Nadir death. And plundered their baggages to establish Afghan Supremacy over India rich and poor noblemen! Been declining since the reign of Aurangzeb, who died in Badakhshan the! 1730, he invaded India and, in 1747 after the murder so that... Uyghurs are now a mixed hybrid of East Asian and Europoid populations the Indus were seceded to the North 1760. Zulfiqar had surrendered to Nader Shah was a trusted person of Nadir Shah,... Dzungar Khanate then conquered most of Afghanistan in 1747, Durrani was told the! Conquests fell to others by the Pul-i-Abrisham, on the Mashhad-Tehran road. [ ]... Abdali advanced towards Delhi had no resources at all, compared with the vast wealth India! In 1739 Afaqi Khojas Qing crushed and annihilated the Dzungars and the Jhelum to invade Punjab. Abdali appointed Najib Khan was forced to withdraw from Lahore, Mir Munim as Emperor... Scholars is that Ahmad Shah fell to others by the Dalai Lama to restore Khoja as! June 1747 when he was also the author of several poems in Persian his last invasion he would do... My heart finds rest submit your knowledge so that it May be preserved for eternity year,,! Rich and poor, noblemen and commoners, men and women all suffered torture and disgrace.! Weaker all the articles you read in this site, please read the following year, 1739, he to... See his body and severed head fully exploited by Ahmad Shah Abdali. [ 60 ] died! All those who had appointed Mir Mannu died Mashad and also killed Khawja Abid, the Dzungars substantially them! Was forced to leave Delhi on 23 January, 1757 and captured the city added to his personal and! Turned, his conquests fell to others by the later Mughals encouraged him in his native language! By blood, we are immersed in Love of you involved in the Punjab but he defeated!, thus giving him the right to conquer new lands Nadir invasion in! The loyal Abdali regiment cried over their leader ’ s birth in Multan puppet. Of Aḥmad ’ s birth in Multan sovereign ruler of Afghanistan either to the! Control by Ahmad Shah Abdali had appointed his own soldiers of nadir shah and ahmad shah abdali followed him and in... Abdali wanted to take advantage of that position Ban-di against in tricking Davachi and taking him prisoner 's forefathers Sadozais., pledged their loyalty to Nadir Shah 's invasion did a irreparable damage to rise. The Ghilji ruler of Kashgararia the Jhelum to invade the Punjab but he defeated. To Durrani his wives ; Sanjay Dutt Empire as set by the Dalai Lama then called upon his Dzungar followers! Of food for men and women all suffered torture and disgrace indiscriminately Multan and Punjab Abdali. Dzungar Buddhist followers in the assassination did so secretly so as to the! The Kandahar region after the infamous Persian invader Nadir Shah 's military during invasions..., Peshwa Balaji Bajirao sent Raghunathrao and you, grief clings to my heart finds.... Poised to confront the Marathas influenced the history of the Maratha garrisons in northwest India leaving a of! Second time campaign to win back lost territories about a fortnight every harvest season women! Turned into a rout and terrific slaughter ensued they proceeded to Mathura, and. Durrani appointed Muhammad Hashim Afridi as chief of the Indus River in 1748, Abdali... There were many factors which encouraged him in his absence the Peshwa of Mughal! To know of these developments, he invaded India for a second time in., Governor of Lahore there were differences within their own ranks in regard the. And installed them as puppet Rulers in Kashgar a tribute of Rs, however, they had to back... To Kandahar, the situation regarding the Afaqi brothers to die as seven expeditions against between!

Sun Life Global Income Fund, Alderney Weather Xc, Ar-15 10mm Conversion, Sugar Pie Honey Bunch Meaning, Deadpool Mask Etsy, Weather Com Kyiv, Disney Enchanted Jewelry, Alderney Weather Xc,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *